In each temporary account, closing entries also result in a zero balance. The temporary accounts are now ready to gather data for the next accounting period, which will be distinct from the data from previous periods. Closing entries are journal entries required to close all nominal or temporary accounts at the end of a financial or accounting period or year. Suppose a business had the following trial balance before any closing journal entries at the end of an accounting period. From this trial balance, as we learned in the prior section, you make your financial statements. After the financial statements are finalized and you are 100 percent sure that all the adjustments are posted and everything is in balance, you create and post the closing entries.

How to Record a Closing Entry

The three major closing journal entries are (1) closing revenues to income summary; (2) closing expenses to income summary; and (3) closing income summary to equity. Only income statement accounts help us summarize income, so only income statement accounts should go into income summary. It’s not reported on any financial statements because it’s only used during the closing process and the account balance is zero at the end of the closing process. The net income (NI) is moved into retained earnings on the balance sheet as part of the closing entry process.

What is Income Summary?

  1. The accounts that need to start with a clean or $0 balance going into the next accounting period are revenue, income, and any dividends from January 2019.
  2. The expense accounts have debit balances so to get rid of their balances we will do the opposite or credit the accounts.
  3. As such, one could request financial results for most any period of time (e.g., the 45 days ending October 15, 20XX), even if it related to a period several years ago.
  4. Printing Plus has $140 of interest revenue and $10,100 of service revenue, each with a credit balance on the adjusted trial balance.
  5. Ultimately, we close the income summary account to the retained earnings account.

Below are examples of closing entries that zero the temporary accounts in the income statement and transfer the balances to the permanent retained earnings account. Companies use closing entries to reset the balances of temporary accounts − accounts that show balances over a single accounting period − to zero. By doing so, the company moves these balances into permanent accounts on the balance sheet. These permanent accounts show a company’s long-standing financials. Made at the end of an accounting period, it transfers balances from a set of temporary accounts to a permanent account. Essentially resetting the account balances to zero on the general ledger.

What factors are to be considered in preparing the closing entries?

When an accountant closes an account, the account balance returns to zero. The post closing trial balance reveals the balance of accounts after the closing process, and consists of balance sheet accounts only. The post-closing trial balance is a tool to demonstrate that accounts are in balance; it is not a formal financial statement. All of the revenue, expense, and dividend accounts were zeroed away via closing, and do not appear in the post-closing trial balance. It is also possible to bypass the income summary account and simply shift the balances in all temporary accounts directly into the retained earnings account at the end of the accounting period.

Operating Expense

Countries may have extra steps or fewer steps when closing their entries, but generally, it is all the same where Temporary Accounts are closed and the balances are transferred. As mentioned, one way to make closing entries is by directly closing the temporary balances to the equity or retained earnings account. An accounting period is any duration of time that’s covered by financial statements. It can be a calendar year for one business while another business might use a fiscal quarter. Close the income summary account by debiting income summary and crediting retained earnings.

How do you close expense accounts?

‘Total expenses‘ account is credited to record the closing entry for expense accounts. After the closing journal entry, the balance on the dividend account is zero, and the retained earnings account has been reduced by 200. What is the current book value of your electronics, car, and furniture? Are the value of your assets and liabilities now zero because of the start of a new year? Your car, electronics, and furniture did not suddenly lose all their value, and unfortunately, you still have outstanding debt. Therefore, these accounts still have a balance in the new year, because they are not closed, and the balances are carried forward from December 31 to January 1 to start the new annual accounting period.

We see from the adjusted trial balance that our revenue accounts have a credit balance. To make them zero we want to decrease the balance or do the opposite. We will debit the revenue accounts and credit the Income Summary account.

The closing entries are then posted to the ledger accounts by the company. Companies usually create closing entries directly from the ledger’s adjusted balances. Companies generally journalize and post-closing entries only at the end of the annual accounting period, in contrast to the steps in the cycle. At the end of each accounting period, financial statements are prepared to determine the financial status of the company. The $10,000 of revenue generated through the accounting period will be shifted to the income summary account.

Permanent accounts are accounts that show the long-standing financial position of a company. These accounts carry forward their balances throughout multiple accounting periods. If there is a net profit, the balance of the income summary account is also zeroed by debiting the income summary account and crediting the capital account. When the credit balance of the revenue account and the debit balance of the expenses account are transferred to the summary account, the account’s balance is either net income or a net loss. After these entries, all temporary accounts (revenue, expenses, dividends) will have zero balances, and the net income and dividends will be reflected in the Retained Earnings account.

This process ensures that your temporary accounts are properly closed out sequentially, and the relevant balances are transferred to the income summary and ultimately to the retained earnings account. The retained earnings account is reduced by the amount paid out in dividends through a debit, and the dividends expense is credited. As mentioned above, Temporary Accounts are closed, and their balances are transferred into a Permanent Account. Once temporary accounts (revenues and expenses) are closed, the income summary account is then closed to owner’s equity or retained earnings. You may generate a post-closing trial balance to test the equality of debits and credits before the start of the next accounting period.

The income summary account then transfers the net balance of all the temporary accounts to retained earnings, which is a permanent account on the balance sheet. The balance in dividends, revenues and expenses would all be zero leaving only the permanent accounts for a post closing trial balance. The trial balance shows the ending balances of all asset, liability and equity accounts remaining. The main change from an adjusted trial balance is revenues, expenses, and dividends are all zero and their balances have been rolled into retained earnings. A closing entry is a journal entry that is made at the end of an accounting period to transfer balances from a temporary account to a permanent account.

The closing entry will credit Supplies Expense, Depreciation Expense–Equipment, Salaries Expense, and Utility Expense, and debit Income Summary. The accounts that need to start with a clean or $0 balance going into the next accounting period are revenue, income, and any dividends from January 2019. To determine the income (profit or loss) from the month of January, the store needs to close the income statement information from January 2019. All the temporary accounts, including revenue, expense, and dividends, have been reset to zero.

He is the sole author of all the materials on For the past 52 years, Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as an accounting supervisor, manager, consultant, university instructor, and innovator in teaching accounting online. Closing the dividends or withdrawals account to Retained Earnings.

Once adjusting entries have been made, closing entries are used to reset temporary accounts and transfer their balances to permanent accounts. All revenue accounts will be zero after debiting the revenue account and crediting the income summary account, and the revenue account will best accounting and bookkeeping apps for small business be closed at the same time. Instead, companies transfer the net income or net loss from the revenue and expense accounts to a temporary account called “Income Summary,” and then to the owner’s capital. Here you will focus on debiting all of your business’s revenue accounts.

The closing entries are the journal entry form of the Statement of Retained Earnings. Closing entries are those journal entries made in a manual accounting system at the end of an accounting period to shift the balances in temporary accounts to permanent accounts. Temporary accounts are used to compile transactions that impact the profit or loss of a business during a year, while permanent accounts maintain an ongoing balance over time. A sole proprietor or partnership often uses a separate drawings account to record withdrawals of cash by the owners.

It is important to understand retained earnings is not closed out, it is only updated. Retained Earnings is the only account that appears in the closing entries that does not close. You should recall from your previous material that retained earnings are the earnings retained by the company over time—not cash flow but earnings. Now that we have closed the temporary accounts, let’s review what the post-closing ledger (T-accounts) looks like for Printing Plus. Since dividend and withdrawal accounts are not income statement accounts, they do not typically use the income summary account. These accounts are closed directly to retained earnings by recording a credit to the dividend account and a debit to retained earnings.